The Wichitas:
Tribal Adaptations
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A typical Wichita home, photographed by Edward Curtis around 1927 near Anadarko, Oklahoma (LOC).
Today, the Wichita Nation resides in central Oklahoma, an area that was also their historical homeland. In their own language, they call
themselves "the raccoon-eyed people" or Kitikiti'sh, referring to the tattoos on their faces. European accounts identified them as the
Ousitas, Panis or the Quiverans (in the false belief that a Wichita village would be the mythical, golden city of Quivera). Americans
sometimes erronously chronicled them as Pawnees, who were a separate but friendly tribe from Kansas/Nebraska.

Home in the transition zone
The Wichita people lived in the Cross Timbers, a unique landscape consisting of wooded areas of post oak, elm, hickory, bois d'arce, and
cottonwoods punctuated by wide, open prairies that stretched from Kansas into Texas. The Cross Timbers is a transition zone, where
dense forests of pine, cedar, and cypress in the east give way to the plains of the west. The Wichita culture mirrored this transition well.
They were a semi-nomadic people, who hunted bison with the
Comanches in the winter months but set up permanent villages in the
Spring and Summer to plant and harvest crops like the
Caddos, their cousins. They spoke a Caddoan language but their religious
practices influenced the Comanches, with whom they also traded and lived in relative peace. Their lifeways reflected their location
between today's Kansas and Texas, sandwiched among the agricultural kingdoms of the east and the Plains tribes of the west.

Like the Caddos, the Wichitas were once centralized through a network of large cities, where their leaders and holy people resided.
These cities were built around earthen mound pyramids which may have acted as calendars as well as burial chambers for leaders. One
of their largest cities has been recently discovered under a
golf course near Wichita, Kansas. Just before European contact, their power
de-centralized and instead, the Wichitas dispersed. Small villages of large, multi-family clans became the tribal centers. Their houses
looked like Caddo homes: thatched grasses in a conical shape, with a fire pit in the center and with thatched arbors on the periphery.
The Kaichais, Taovayans, Tehuacanas, Wacos, Wichitas, and Tawakonis made up this loose confederation. Unlike the Caddos, they did not
bury their dead in mounds inside their villages, but instead practiced outdoor burials that proffered corpses to the elements. But, like
the Caddos, they were matrilineal. Women and men both shared in tasks to build and maintain their villages, and both shared in religious
rituals that centered on various dances.
Dancing was a very important aspect of Wichita culture. Here is a demonstration dance at Fort Sill in 1927. Photograph is by Edward Curtis, LOC.
On the move
Originally concentrated along the Arkansas River, the Wichitas moved southward to the Red River by the early 18th century due to
warfare with the
Osages. Here, they recreated their early settlements along the river with large villages that acted as trading posts for
the Caddos, Comanches, French, and Anglo Americans. One of the largest of these villages was peopled by the Taovyans and spanned
the Red River between today's Jefferson County, Oklahoma and Montague County, Texas. The Spanish tended to avoid the Wichita
villages; while Coronado visited them in the 16th century, by the 17th and 18th centuries the Spanish government referred to them quite
fearfully as "los Nortenos" as attempts at mission building were met with warfare. This apprehension was well justified after the
Taovayans and Comanches staged a violent, joint attack on the San Saba Mission (Menard County, Texas) in 1759. The Spanish
government sent over 600 troops to avenge the deaths of 19 people at the mission, but the Spanish and native soldiers were quickly
repelled at the Taovayan village. The battle area became known to later American settlers as
Spanish Fort.

After the Spanish took control of the Louisiana Territory in 1763, their overtures became friendlier. They sent a French envoy, Athanase
de Mezieres, to the Red River to extend trade and seek peace. Because he was French, the Wichitas reacted well. While de Mezieres
accomplished the mission, he also asserted Spanish dominion over the Red River, and named the Taovayan villages San Teodoro and
San Bernardo.

Artifact theft
The Spanish contact inadvertently brought another form of warfare - smallpox. The Wichitas began to suffer the effects of the sustained
contact with foreigners, and this was exacerbated by the theft of their Medicine Stone. Near the Taovayan villages lay a large meteorite,
which Henry Glass, an American trader, misidentified as platinum. He and a few other men stole the stone in 1806 in an expedition funded
by John Sibley, the Indian agent out of
Natchitoches. Both the Wichitas and the Comanches revered this stone as medicine. In their
belief, medicine was an object that could restore health, vanquish enemies, cast spells, and more. The medicine must be paid for, mostly
by an offering/sacrifice, and often was delivered from the object to the requesting person via a medicine man or medicine woman. The
medicine stone was so powerful that chunks were taken from it by talisman seekers. The theft of this massive, 1600 lbs meteorite must
have devastated the tribe immensely. By 1810, the Wichitas entered a self-described "dark time." They abandoned their villages and
consolidated their clans. American descriptions of the encounters with the Wichitas often characterized them as "degraded," meaning
that many had taken to drinking and begging.
While accompanying the Dodge-Leavenworth expedition of 1844, George Catlin, the famous Pennsylvania artist who documented the Plains
tribes in oils and sketches, drew the Wichita village he encountered west of the Wichita Mountains. This sketch is contained in the second
volume of his book about his time with the expedition, available on
Google.
Brutality towards the Wichitas
The early American period was brutal for the Wichitas. While the Taovayans re-established a village at the base of the Wichita Mountains in
Indian Territory near their allies, the Kiowas and the Comanches, and maintained a number of their traditional ways, the Wacos and
Tawakonis who lived south of the Red River did not fare well. Simply put, Anglo Texans hated Indians - there's no other word that could
aptly convey the meanness perpetrated by white men on the frontier against the Wichitas and the Caddos. To Anglos, there was no
difference between a Comanche, who had declared a de-facto war against white settlements, and any other tribe.

President Sam Houston extended an olive branch in 1844 at the Treaty of Bird's Fort and at the Treaty of
Preston (under Holland Coffee,
Indian Agent), which convinced the tribes of the Wichitas and Caddos to remove west of the Trinity River. After Texas became a U.S. state,
the federal government, under
Randolph B. Marcy's direction, established the Brazos Indian Reservation in Young County to protect the
Caddos and Wichitas from Anglo, Comanche, and possible Osage raids. The reservation tribes started farms and accompanied soldiers on
scouting expeditions. However, Anglo hostility and paranoia continued; additionally, the Anglo men believed that the military was more
interested in protecting the tribes than securing the frontier. In 1859, John Baylor led an ambush against the reservation which killed few
on both sides, but was enough for the federal government to disband the reservation. Robert S. Neighbors, acting as Indian agent, led the
men and women to a new reservation around newly-built Fort Cobb in Indian Territory. They settled along the Washita River with the
Taovayans and the Caddos. On his return to
Fort Belknap near the now defunct reservation, a man named Edward Cornett assassinated
Neighbors.

The people that comprised the great Wichita tribe were relatively peaceful and cooperative. But repeatedly throughout their history, they
were hounded out of their homelands by both hostile natives and Anglos. They still live in their traditional homelands and have organized
as a nation, but their territory has been greatly reduced. Even their language has expired - the last known
Wichita speaker died in 2016.
The Wichitas are a people whose culture is fast becoming a relic.
In the past, women created and used the daily artifacts of their cultures;
this is why the European industrialized era hit the native women
particularly hard. John Soule took this photograph of a Wichita mother
and her baby in a traditional board carrier in 1899 (LOC).
Another fantastic artifact image: Edward Curtis photographed a Wichita
woman using a traditional mortar and pestle to ground corn. Corn was a
staple in all native diets. In the Red River valley, a ground and boiled
corn dish, flavored with hickory nuts, was a favorite (LOC).
Sources:
A History of the Indians of the United States by Angie Debo
Catholic Diocese Archives, Austin
Handbook of Texas Online
Kitikiti'sh: The Wichita Indians and Associated Tribes in Texas, 1757-1859
Oklahoma Historical Society
The Indians of Texas: From prehistoric to modern times by W. W. Newcomb, Jr.
The Wichita Indians by F. Todd Smith
RED RIVER ORIGINALS
Original inhabitants:    Caddos         Wichitas         Comanches         Kiowas
Migrant tribes after 1806:     Shawnees        Osages        Tonkawas
Removed tribes by 1830:         Choctaws        Chickasaws        End of the Trail