|A Congressman said in 1800 about the Red River Valley:
“The masses of virgin silver and gold that glitter in the veins and rocks which underlie the Arkansas River
mingle with the minerals near certain other streams and offer themselves to the hand of him who will gather,
refine and covert them to use are common and wonderful.”
This congressman may have not known what he was talking about, but neither did anyone else who wondered
what treasures the western Red River hid. For most of the 19th century, the Red River above Natchitoches,
Louisiana, was still a complete mystery to the white man.
|Special thanks to Greg Huber for the tons of information - including maps and books - that he shared!
|The Indian, French and Spanish Red River
The Caddos, Wichitas, and Comanches traded and raided around the Red River for centuries before Spanish and French explorers made
their way to the region. The impressions of the middle Red River the Europeans took back with them were quite frightful: Athanse de
Mezeires, the lieutenant governor of the Natchitoches district, reported of the fierce "Nortenos" whose women tattooed their lips and
breasts. Other explorers, such as Pierre (Pedro) Vial, a Frenchman working under Spanish employ, and Philip Nolan (possibly an American
spy), wrote about and mapped the Red River region.
However, because the lands were so far away from Mexico City, the Spanish governors had an impossible time enticing settlers that far
north, and left the Red River pretty much alone.
Purchasing a River
The remoteness of the Red River still weighed heavily when Thomas Jefferson finagled the deal to buy Louisiana Territory from the
French. Jefferson not only wanted to have the Missouri River explored - which was the eastern boundary of the Purchase - he also wanted
to know about the Red River. The river formed the southern border, the line between New Spain and America. Was it a water way to Santa
Fe? Maybe even to the Pacific?
Four expeditions were sent up the Red River within a span of 20 years, but all journeys ended in failure. In 1804, William Dunbar and
George Hunter - Lewis and Clark's counterparts - set out to follow the Red River, but went up the Washita River instead. Thomas Freeman
and Peter Custis then attempted the same journey in 1806 but were stopped by the Spanish at Spanish Bluff (which is in Bowie County,
Texas). Freeman and Custis did bring back a detailed map of their journey, which would serve future explorers well. John Lewis and
William Alexander led another expedition in 1806 but didn't go farther than the Plains. And Stephen H. Long's expedition of 1818 ended in
confusion: he and his men accidentally followed the Canadian River, a river they had explored previously.
Guess who the Illegals were?
The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1820 settled the boundary of New Spain and the United States once and for all, with the northern banks of the
Red River considered a part of Spain. Until Texas statehood in 1845, neither Americans nor Mexicans undertook expeditions to the
western Red River, where the Comanches and Kiowas ruled unimpeded. The Mexican government, however, did keep a weary eye on the
eastern Red River region in Texas: illegal Americans had begun settling the area while still New Spain, and Mexican independence didn't
change this influx any. Without empresarios, Americans were developing plantations, towns, and most importantly, roads. Their presence
may have been a great advantage for the eventual Texan rebellion.
|All the fashionable explorers used John Melish's 1816 map, including Randolph B. Marcy. This map does not depict the geography accurately,
however; the middle and western portions of the Red River region are "Terra Icognita" (unknown earth).
Click on the map to see a detailed image of the Red River portion of the map. (Library of Congress)
|This 1763 French map of the Red River area demonstrates how unknown the western portion was (Library of Congress)
|"Wrong Way" Stephen H. Long. He wasn't really called that.
|Enter Randolph B. Marcy
By the 1850s, most of the United States had been mapped. Lewis and Clark had determined that the Pacific Ocean could not be reached by
river. John Melish, a Scottish geographer, had mapped the location of the 100th meridian, which determined the established "frontier" of
the west. Everyone was flocking to California in search of riches, and overland trails were blazed by the Union army to aid the emigrants in
One of these trail blazers was Randolph B. Marcy. From his station at Fort Smith (Arkansas) and later Fort Arbuckle (Indian Territory),
Marcy, at this point a captain in the Army Corps of Engineers and a graduate of West Point, established the California Emigrant Trail,
through Texas to Santa Fe, in 1849 (this later approximated the Butterfield Overland Stage and Mail Route). He also helped General William
G. Belknap select sites for Texas frontier forts in the early 1850s, and was instrumental in mapping headwaters throughout northern Texas
to entice German immigrant settlements. It was Marcy who recommended the site for Fort Sill in the 1860s.
Due to his intimate knowledge of Texas and Indian Territory geography, Marcy was selected to find the source of the Red River in 1852.
The U.S. actually had several reasons to go up the Red River besides the official, "let's just see what's there," justification. Marcy was to
report back on the minerals he found, just in case there were any precious metals laying around. He was also to report on the condition of
the region. Was the unexplored west really the "Great American Desert," suitable to only wild savages, as Stephen H. Long insisted it was,
or could the Southern Plains tribes be forced into farming, thus opening the west for Anglo settlement?
The Red River Expedition of 1852
Along with several troops, a Delaware guide named Jim Ned, and Captain George B. McClellan (who would go on to marry Marcy's
daughter), Marcy set out to discover the Red River headwaters. Unlike his predecessors, Marcy didn't use a boat, but explored mainly on
horse back. He kept a meticulous diary, reporting on the different animals, plants, and nature he encountered. He made friends with the
Indians, and even wrote a dictionary of sorts of the Wichita language. He reported on Wichita, Comanche, and Kiowa customs. He found a
huge prairie dog town (estimating it to contain around 20 million of the critters), and wrote passionately of his impressions of the wild and
unexplored regions of the Red River, especially of the Cross Timbers:
|Randolph B. Marcy was a happening dude. He married Mary A.
Mann, and his daughter married George B. McClellan.
Red River Legacy
Well regarded historians have contemplated the impact of the Red River Expedition ever since Marcy undertook it in 1852. Walter
Prescott Webb took to heart Marcy's description of the Cross Timbers as a dividing line between the fertile east and the arid west. Angie
Debo retraced Marcy's steps in Oklahoma, where she found some discrepancies in his calculations.
Oddly, Marcy himself isn't well remembered in mainstream history. Maybe because he became America's last explorer, or because other
captains superseded him when the Civil War came around.
The legacy is clear, however. Finding the Red River headwaters became a watershed moment in the history of the American west. The
southern plains proved inhabitable and maybe even conducive to farming. The Native Americans could be better understood and
strategies could be developed to "civilize" them. New roads were opened for American settlers, though they didn't appear en masse until
the 1890s. For good or bad, a new country had opened, and the last river to be explored in the contiguous United States was finally
|The birthplace of the Red River - the Prairie Dog Town Fork. The river is spring fed.
|A boulder along the shore of the Red River by the 100th Meridian
|"The trees, consisting principally of post oak and black jack, stand[ing] at such intervals that wagons can without
difficulty pass between them in any direction. The soil is thin, sandy, and poorly watered. This forms a boundary
line, dividing the country suited to agriculture from the great prairies, which, for the most part, are arid and
destitute of timber. It seems to have been designed as a natural barrier between civilized man and the savage.”
|This stump, used as building material for a roadside motel near Jacksboro, provides an example of the petrified wood that
Marcy found scattered all over the prairie as he explored the Red River Valley.
Marcy wrote about the petrified forest:
“Upon the rocky bluffs bordering the river we found silicified wood in great quantities, strewed about
over a distance of two miles. The petrification was most perfect, exhibiting all the fibers, knots, and bark,
as plainly as in the native state, and was quite similar to the cotton wood."
See some of this indigenous architecture!
Although the second in command, George B. McClellan (who would later be fired by Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War) broke the
compass and the expeditions' men ran out of water, the journey was ultimately successful. Marcy and the corps found the source of the
Red River within the sheer cliffs of Palo Duro Canyon. Upon seeing the canyon, Marcy's writing sounded almost poetic:
|Marcy mapped the Red River from its source to approximately Preston, Texas (the starting point for his journey). Click to enlarge.
|Find the Marcy!
Marcy buried a message in a bottle between the Salt Fork of the Red River and the Canadian River.
The bottle's coordinates are: 35°35'03.0 N x 101°55'00.0 W
However... since the second in command, George McClellan, broke the compass during the journey, the
readings may not be very accurate.
|“The magnificence of the views that presented themselves to our eyes as we approached the head of the river,
exceeded anything I had ever beheld. It is impossible for me to describe the sensations that came over me, and the
exquisite pleasure I experienced, as I gazed upon these grand and novel pictures.” For Marcy, Palo Duro looked like
castles and fortresses with an “azure and transparent sky above.”
Back in at Fort Arbuckle, people thought Marcy was dead from an Indian attack, and they gave him a nice funeral, which Marcy found
amusing. Upon Marcy's (very lively) return with his hundreds of sketches, dozens of maps, and pages upon pages of diary entries, he was
given a hero's welcome. His extensive report was published and a shortened version of it became a best seller. Here was the man who
had explored the last wild place in the United States! Marcy testified of his adventures in front of an eager Congress.
Randolph B. Marcy continued his work with the army by leading gold rushers through the Comancheria; drawing maps for German
immigration companies, and surveying proposed routes for a southern transcontinental railroad for the Secretary of State, Jefferson
Davis. During the Civil War, Marcy returned to Pennsylvania to continue his service to the Union.