The Osages
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Original inhabitants:    Caddos         Wichitas         Comanches         Kiowas
Migrant tribes after 1806:     Shawnees        Osages        Tonkawas
Removed tribes by 1830:         Choctaws        Chickasaws        End of the Trail
While the Osage Nation claims to have held territory from the Ohio to the Red River of the South, other tribes dispute this... and history
does not bear out their claims. While the Osages continuously raided into the Red River Valley, they never had a true foothold along the
river's watershed. Their empire, as it was, extended to the Arkansas River. Even though their influence did not extend to the Red River,
they were of the most successful tribes west of the Mississippi River.  

The Osages are a Dhegia Sioux tribe whose linguistic cousins include the Kaws, Omahas, Poncas, and Quapaws. Their original homelands
were along the southern Ohio, middle Mississippi, and eastern Missouri rivers. Their name in their language is Ni-U-on-Ska, "People of
the Middle Waters."

The Osages may have been a Mississippian tribe that interacted and/or inhabited the Cahokia Mounds before the 14th century.
De-centralization, perhaps due to climate changes, may have made them into nomads. The tribe fought with the Iroquois and allied
themselves with the Illinois. This period of extensive warfare militarized the Osages. They formed a warrior-centric society that valued
raids and territorial claims. European invasion exacerbated their aggressions, and by the 18th centiry, they had pushed into today's
Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and even reached Santa Fe. By the American period, the Osages held fast to the lands of Oklahoma above
the Quachita Mountains and along the Arkansas River to, at least, the 100th meridian.

The Osages terrified the
Caddos and the Wichitas; continuous raids by the Osages left their own confederacies weakened. The tribe itself
was weakened by the American disregard for the land claims. Their portion of Indian Territory, unbeknownst to them, became the new
homelands of the Cherokees after this tribe was removed from their own homelands in the 1830s. The Osages were forced into northern
Indian Territory (today's Kansas) but after the Civil War, re-settled in the northeastern portion of their former homelands. This final
removal proved brutal to the Osages; a number of women and children died, most likely due to disease.

Unlike the
Comanches who were also a warrior-culture, the Osages practiced agriculture and, by the turn of the 20th century, they had
become successful ranchers. They lived in the fertile eastern plains and held their lands communally. Then, after 1905, the Osages were
forced to divide their land into individual allotments. However, due to the money made from range-leasing to Texas ranchers and their
own livestock trade, the Osages bought the allotment rights and thus, owned their reservation outright. This ownership gave the Osages
the ability to sell or lease their own land, and generated wealth and educational opportunities that other tribes did not enjoy.

The allotments coincided with the discovery of oil. Practically overnight, the Osages became even wealthier from dividends generated by
the wells. In one of the most horrific crimes in U.S. history, unscrupulous white men married Osage women who owned headrights. Then,
they killed the women and their families in order to take control of the land. The nascent FBI investigated and uncovered the murders, but
wariness of outsiders in the Osage Nation continued.
David Grann's book on the killings is a chilling reminder of the evils some Anglos
perpetrated against Native Americans.

The Osage Nation is one of the few tribes that has possibly re-gained their pre-European contact population figures (since no one took a
census back then, the jury's still out on this). The nation volunteers to the U.S. armed forces a higher rate than most other ethnic
populations, and traditions like dances, crafts, meetings, and lifeway classes are upheld in the nation's capital of Pawhuska (Osage
County) and in other places.
Osage dancers at their dance hall near Pawhuska in the early 20th century (OHS).
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